CONTOH SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS

INFLUENCE OF DISCUSSION TECHNIQUE

ON THE STUDENTS’ READING ABILITY

AT THE EIGHTH GRADE STUDENTS OF MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH ATTAQWA TANGERANG

THESIS

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for strata one degree

 

 

 

Written by:

SITTI MAHILLAH

NPM: 20068100298

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

SEKOLAH TINGGI KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN (STKIP) KUSUMA NEGARA JAKARTA

2010

 

 

 

PERSETUJUAN PEMBIMBING

 

Pembimbing I                                                                            Pembimbing II

Drs.H.Damrah Nasution,M.Pd                                     Rudy Hartono,M.Pd

Tanggal :                                                                                                    Tanggal :                                                                                                                                   

 

 

PERSETUJUAN DEWAN PENGUJI UJIAN SKRIPSI

 

Nama                                                     Tanda Tangan                      Tanggal                                     

 

Dr.H.Sugiharto, M.M                                …………………….           ………………………..

(Ketua STKIP Kusuma Negara) 

Dr.H.Sri Rahayu Pudjiastuti,M.Pd              …………………….            ……………………….

(Pembantu Ketua I Bidang Akademik)    

 

Drs.H.Romdani,M.Pd          

(Ketua Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa  …………………….           ………………………     

Inggris )

 

Dr.H. Kusrin,M.Pd                                      ……………………            ……………………….  

(Anggota)

 

Drs.H.Zainul Anwar ,M.Pd                      ……………………….         …………………………        

(Anggota)

 

Siti Yulidhar.H. SPd                                  . ……………………….         …………………………        

(Anggota)

 

 

Tanggal Lulus                 :  29 Januari 2011

NAMA                            : SITTI  MAHILLAH

NPM                               : 20068100298

JUDUL                           : Influence of Discussion Technique on The Students’ Reading       Ability at The Eighth Grade Students of Madrasah Tsanawiyah Attaqwa Tangerang

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

Sitti Mahillah Nim: 20068100298” Influence of Using Discussion Technique on Students’ Reading Ability at the Eighth Grade Students of Madrasah Tsanawiyah Attaqwa Tangerang Sekolah Tinggi Keguruan Dan Ilmu Pendidikan (STKIP) Kusuma Negara Jakarta

2010

 

In teaching and learning English there are some factors that must be taken  much by the teacher  as the main person  who teaches  the English materials for her students. There for she has to  be familiar   with the kind of methods used in teaching process.Beside that  to make a good atmoshpir in the class,she also is hoped have  the capability  and creativity in doing the task as an English teacher.

There are also some other factors  that must be practiced  a long the teaching -learning  process such as : the schedules ,the lessons plans, the tools of educations  to make the teaching  activity interested for the students and  there is an active  class by  some more  doing  and practicing  the materials given.

To make the teaching – learning process clear and relevant,it is better for the teacher to know much about, Discussion technique is a technique in which students work in group, Discussion technique can be used in a variety of ways for variety goals, but it is primarily used for the acquisition and presentation of a new material, review, or informed debate.

Based on the explanation above,the aim of this research  activity  is to give  an information that discussion technique can be used to teach English materials  for the students and it has some alternative ways tobe practiced based on the teacher’s creatifity,and the teacher‘s capability.

While the benefit of this research activity,it is hoped that it will be give some benefits  both for the teacher and the students  a long the learning process,it means that the teacher can practice the choosen Influence of Using Discussion Technique on Students’ Reading Ability at the Eighth Grade Students of Madrasah Tsanawiyah Attaqwa Tangerang Sekolah Tinggi Keguruan Dan Ilmu Pendidikan (STKIP)  used to to give the English materials legality, while for the students, they can receive the teacher’s explanation easily, interesting and enjoyable to follow the learning process .So they can improve their capabality  in English and have the high caurasity to learn much about English.

The result of this research Based on the data collected from the students showed that, the t value is 5.6 with the level of significance 5% and 1%. Are 2, 00 and 2, 65 from the d.f .58 t Value is higher then t table 2.00<5.6 >2, 65 So the null hypothesis of the researcher is rejected. It means there is an influence of discussion technique on student reading ability. So, the students have responsibility and enjoy in the learning process. It means that discussion technique can be used as one of the alternative to teach reading.

 

 

 

DEDICATION

  

The writer dedicated this thesis to :

Her beloved parents

Her beloved husband

Her beloved son and daughter

And  to all people who encourage her in English Education

 

  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the name of Allah, most Gracious, most Merciful, praise be to Allah SWT lord of the world, so that the writer can finish this thesis as a partial fulfillment of the requirement for the graduate degree. The writer is fully aware that this thesis still has many weaknesses. In addition, this thesis would not be finished without other’s helps therefore. In this chance she would like to express her gratitude and appreciation to:

  1. Dr. H. Sugiharto MM  as chairman  of STKIP Kusuma Negara Jakarta,who has given  the policy in the  examination  of this thesis.
  2. Drs.H.Romdani as a chief English Department Education At STKIP Kusuma Negara Jakarta
  3.  Drs H.Damrah Nasution MPd,as the first advisor and Rudi Hartono Mpd as the second advisor who have patiently given helps, guidance, and motivation  in conducting the study.
  4. The Principal of Mts At-taqwa Belendung Tangerang who has given   the   writer   permission to carry out the research.
  5. My sons and daugther,Alvin Juliansyah, Izzat Maulana Maqdis and Saja Syamila ‘’You are my spirit of my life’’

The writer realizes that this work is still far from perfect, constructive criticism and suggestion are welcome to make this work.

At least, may this thesis be useful for English teacher, linguists and students as well as to those who read the thesis.

Tangerang, January 2011

The Writer

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..  i

APPROVAL SHEET………………………………………………………………………………………. ii

ABSTRACT

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

TABLE OF CONTENTS .

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES..

CHAPTER I    INTRODUCTION

  1. The Background of the Study
  2. The Identification of the Problem
  3. The Limitation of  the Problem
  4. The Formulation of the Problem
  5. The Benefit of the Study

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL DESCRIPTION, FRAMEWORK OF THINKING, AND HYPOTHESIS

A. Reading Comprehension

1 The Definition of Reading Comprehension

2. The Purpose of Reading

3. The Types of Reading

B.Discussion Technique

1. The Definition of   Discussion Technique

2. The Principle of   Discussion Technique

3. The Teacher Role in Discussion Technique

4. The Procedure of Discussion Technique

5. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Discussion Technique

C. Framework of Thinking

D. Hypothesis

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  1. The Objective of the Research…………………………………..….29
  2. The Time and Place of the Research………….……….………….29
  3. The Research Methodology…………………..………………..……29
  4. The Population and Sample………………..…………………..……30
  5. The Instrument of the Research……………………….…………..30
  6. The Technique of Data Collecting………………….………………30
  7. The Technique of Analyzing Data……………………..………..…31

CHAPTER IV   THE RESULT OF THE RESEARCH AND   DATA ANALYSIS

A. The Data of Teaching Reading by Using Traditional Method (X. Variable)

1. The Description of Data

2. The Table of Frequency Distribution Data

3. The Histogram & Polygon in Control Group.

.B The Data Of  Teaching Reading by Using Discussion Technique (Y. Variable)

    1. The Description of Data
    2. The Table of Frequency Distribution Data.
    3. The Histogram & Polygon of  in Experimental Group.
    4. The Analysis of Data.

D. The Research Result

  1. The Research Findings

CHAPTER V CONCLUSSION AND SUGGESTIONS

A. Conclussion

B.Suggestions..

BIBLIOGRAPHY

AUTOBIOGRAPHY.

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

 

 

Appendix 1   The Test of Reading Skill  ……………………………………………………………… ….52

Appendix 2   The List of Answers…………………………………………………………………………….58

Appendix 3   The Data of The Students Reading Test of Control Class ………………………..59

Appendix 4   The Data of The Students Reading Test of Experiment Class…………………..60

Appendix 5   The‘’T’’ Tabel of  df……………………………………………………………….  ………..61

Appendix 6   The Data Research Result of The X Variable  ……………………………………… 62

Appendix 7   The Calculation  and Validity Instrument Text Result of  X Variable………..63

Appendix 8   The Data Research Result of The Y Variable  ……………………………………….66

Appendix 9   The Calculation  and Validity Instrument Text Result of  Y Varaiable………67

figure 1        The Histogram & Polygon of -Test Data in Control Group………………………37

figure 2       The Histogram & Polygon of Post-Test Data in Experimental Group………….40

 

 

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

 

  1. A.    The Background of Study

Language is a means of communication. Therefore the mastering of English is something which is very essential for everybody who wants to increase his or her knowledge and technology. English is an international language, almost people from all over the world use English for their communication that is why English is very important language. People use the language to express their emotions, feelings, and ideas. No one will be able to communicate internationally without using English since almost of scientific books are written in English. For that reason in Indonesia, English is the foreign language taught at the formal schools. Furthermore, the teaching of the language starts from the kindergarten.

English as a subject matter in school covers the four basic language skill: reading, speaking, writing and listening. In every subject, students learning activities involve reading. Reading is one of the complex ways in learning English. It is kind of activity to comprehend the writer’s idea or the way the writer communicates with the readers by way of the written or printed words. Reading is important for everybody in order to cope with new knowledge in the changing world of technological age.

The reading skill becomes very important in education field, students need to be exercised and trained in order to have a good reading skill. Reading is also something crucial and indispensable for the students, because the success of their study defends on the greater of their ability to read. If their reading is poor   they are very likely to fail in their study or at least they will have difficulty in making progress. On the other hand, if they have good ability in reading, they will have a better chance to success in their study.

Reading is the process of constructing meaning trough dynamic interaction among readers in written language, in line with the reading situation. It is clear that, reading is an important activity in any language class, not only as the source of information and pleasure but also as a means of consolidating and extending one’s knowledge of a language.

Reading is the most emphasized in English teaching and learning process, quite simply, without solid reading second language readers cannot perform at levels they must succeed in reading. Thus, reading is not passive but rather an active process, involving the reader in ongoing interaction with the text .Furthermore; reading constantly involves guessing, predicting, checking and comprehending.

Reading is form of non verbal communication. Reading enables students to understand and comprehend language through form like text passage. But some students thought that reading is perhaps the most difficulty language skill to learn. However, in Indonesia the difficulties in mastering English are influenced by many factors, one of them is reading.

Teaching reading for junior high school students must be differed from children in elementary school because of their different characteristic of psychological background. Peer approvals maybe considerably more important for the student than the attention of the teacher which, for younger children is so crucial. It is important for considering their classmates as the motivation in deep learning of improving teaching learning process of reading. Students must be encouraged to respond the text and situation with their own thoughts and experience, rather than just answering question and doing abstract activities. English teacher must give them tasks which they are able to do, rather than humiliating risk

As we know the four skill of language consist of reading, listening, speaking and writing which should be learned by students’ .Those language skill are found in school curriculum. The curriculum of junior high school states that learning English in junior high school consist of reading, listening, speaking and writing should be taught with integrated.

In Indonesia, not all of the citizen can speak English, although English already studied by Indonesian people from kindergartens until university, but English is uses just for formal occasion not in informal occasion that cause only a few Indonesian people can speak English

The Indonesians students start learning English at the elementary school as the local content and the process continues at Senior High School and university .In fact, now, English is also taught in some kindergartens. The pupils are introduced to some English vocabularies. In addition to learning the language in formal education as mentioned above, people also learn it in non-formal education. English courses and private lessons are the examples of non-formal education. .This indicates the failure of teaching English in Junior High School in Indonesia is not successful. It can be seen from the quality of SMP graduates mastery of English.

In Indonesia, some English teachers still use traditional or conventional method to teach reading. Conventional method usually makes students   bored because the method is monotonous and the students are not or discussion active, so it makes the learners get bored. One of the ways to make the teaching reading effective is making the student active. So they enjoy learning and they can improve their reading skill.

Classroom is a small part of school environment; the classroom is top school activities. Whether or not an education program succeeded, it is started from the classroom. The successful teaching learning process is influenced by many factors, namely environment, teachers, pupil and teaching learning process in the classroom, tools and situation of the evaluation.

Classes always consist of good students and weak students. These weak students sit in isolation as they lose confidence in their ability in learn English. Working in group, therefore, is believed to help solve the problem. Shy students who don’t like speak in large class are more comportable speaking out in smaller group. Group members can complement each another strength and weakness in English each students has different background and ability in English, which they can bring to the group.

The English teachers are often faced with problem of students having good decoding skill but inadequate comprehension skill; they need to be able to             successfully train students to use good technique, which provide students with the opportunity to reveal their independently-generated copying technique, thus, ensuring internalization of strategies, as well as sharing those techniques with other reader.

Language strategies are steps taken by students to enhance their own learning. Strategies are especially important for language learning because they are tool for competence. Appropriate language learning strategies result in improved proficiency active, self-directed involvement, which essential for developing communicative and greater self confidence.

When the teacher uses the traditional setting, or model, they begin with an objective and presents primary instructions to the class. Primary instruction is mostly presented in the form of lecturers, text book readings, teacher-lie discussion or possible combination of any of these procedures. The traditional setting is just with rows of desks and teacher’s desk at front.

Many researchers have been interested in doing research to investigate appropriate reading strategies to help students have better understanding when they read. Many reading methods have been used in classroom alternately. The result shows that some are successful with particular group students but some are not. Actually, what should be taken into consideration now is the way the knowledge is presented. As we know, teacher center approaches taking place in tradition classroom do not produce active recipients and results fossilized language learning. It is not effective enough to promote language acquisition.

During the past decade, new approach called discussion technique seemed to attract a lot of attention and become popular. This conceptual approach is based on theoretical framework that provides general principle on how to structure learning activities in a teacher’s specific subject area, curriculum, student and setting. Teacher can use this approach to stimulate students to acquire the knowledge as well as create inter personal and team skill. Working in group, therefore, is believed to help the problem. Discussion technique exposes students to various points of view and to the ways of supporting those viewpoints; therefore, it helps students to learn the reading content, as well as teaches them how to know new content. Discussion technique also can help the students, with or without teacher presence, actively bring meaning to the written word. The technique chosen not only promotes reading comprehension but also provides opportunities for students to learn to monitor their own learning and thinking.

Discussion technique has recently been at the focus of educational research. Discussion technique is very simple to apply. It is observes that discussion technique effects increasing the academic success in addition to the social and intellectual abilities of the students. Various research have shown that especially at the primary, secondary and university level that discussion technique is effective in learning process of theoretical course, in the development of critical thinking process of students, not only in their ability to express themselves, but also in their communication skill. In discussion technique, student may enjoy from time to time getting away from the usual pattern of reading the story or article aloud at sight. This is particular true of better readers; what may be undesirable as routine procedure has real value as an occasional variation. By seeing the problem, it is important that study English especially reading should be done. The writer hope there will be an improvement in teaching of English.

At MTs At-taqwa Belendung Tangerang, English subject is taught aside from the other subject. Many reading methods have been used in teaching English in classroom alternately. The result show that some are successful with some students but some are not. Traditionally, the teacher uses the traditional setting, or model, the teacher doesn’t need to divide his students into small groups, he just discussed the lesson in large group or in classroom setting. Students have only a little chance to express their opinion because the teacher speaks all the time. They get knowledge just from the teacher’s explanation. The students focus all attention upon the teacher and discourage communication among students. All that they have to do is just listen their teacher and make notes for useful information. This strategy is a strategy without group’s work. The students only receive the knowledge from their teacher: they don’t explore the knowledge themselves.

Based on the background above, the writer tries to raise the case of her thesis en title; INFLUENCE OF  DISCUSSION TECHNIQUE ON STUDENTS’ READING ABILITY AT THE EIGHTH GRADE STUDENTS OF MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH ATTAQWA TANGERANG

B. The Identification of Problem

The problem that is going to be discussed in this study is as follows:

  1. Are the students interested in discussion technique?
  2. Do the students become more active in reading?
    1. Is it easier to understand the reading passage after discussion technique activities?
    2. How are any infuence of discussion technique on students’ reading    ability?

C. The Limitation of Problem.

Not all the problem identified in identification of problem could be solved in this discussion. But to make the research more concentrated and get to the focus and due to the limitation of his time and theoretical knowledge, the writer limits the problem mainly on influence of discussion Technique on Students Reading Ability at The Eighth Grade Students of Madrasah Tsanawiyah Attaqwa Tangerang.

D. The Formulation of Problem

Referring the limitation of problem above can be formulated the problem as follows;

Is there any influence of discussion technique on students’ reading ability in the eighth grade students of Madrasah Tsanawiyah Attaqwa Tangerang?

E. The Benefit of the Study

            The benefits of research are as follows:

1.   for the students:

The research intends influence of discussion technique in teaching reading comprehension will give good impact to the students. Students can optimize their reading ability and more motivate in learning English.

2.   for the teachers:

The result is expected to be useful for the writer herself and for the entire English teacher who might use this technique when they teach reading. The teacher should plan their teaching program.

3.    for Mts Attaqwa Tangerang

The school should give the media and also complete the facility in order to make better progress achievement of English and make teaching learning more effective.

 

CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL DESCRIPTION, FRAMEWORK OF THINKING, AND HYPOTHESIS

A. Reading Comprehension

 1. The Definition of Reading Comprehension

Reading comprehension is process in which the reader has to decide linguistic symbol and reconstruct them up to meaningful whole intended by the writer .reading comprehension is only a term referring to reading skill through the important thing is not on the pronouncing or load reading, but it is the understanding taken into consideration. Comprehension includes recognizing and understanding a main idea and related details. A good recognized that many ideas are implied and he must read between the lines to get the full meaning.

Reading comprehension is a complex process which comprises the successful or unsuccessful use of many abilities[1] .When we read, we should be able to recall information afterwards. Meanwhile, according to Jannette Klingner “Reading comparison is the process of constructing meaning by coordinating a number of complex processes that include word reading, word and word knowledge, and fluency[2]

In reading their subject text books students frequently meet unknown words or phrases. For example, scanning heading and sub–heading, and skimming through text, can give an overview and set the scene. Using the index to a book and finding a word’s initial occurrence could often lead to finding definition or explanation[3]

The amount of information gained in reading will vary greatly defending on several factors. One of the reasons for reading .if you only want to find a particular fact, such as a date, name, or place, at would be silly to begin at the opening of a book and study the whole thing carefully. On the other hand, if you want to have a very complete understanding of a topic, you will not get it by skimming over the book quickly and superficially.

For most reading purposes your best approach will be somewhere between quick skimming and a total, all-out effort to completely master the material. That means you have to decide in each case how slowly and carefully to read. We usually do so without thinking about the process of deciding on an approach .for example. Think about how you approach the telephone book. You don’t usually spend time deciding whether to skim, scan, read, or study it. You go ahead and scan it. Looking for the one number you want .however, if you didn’t already know the telephone book was organized you would have to pay some attention to how to find what you wanted. In many cases when you begin looking at a new boo, you do need to spend a moment examining it and deciding how to proceed.

It may help to understand the comprehension process if you at it the way many experts in reading does. They often talk about three levels of comprehension. Each level involves more of an active role on the part of the reader.

  1. Literal comprehension. This level of comprehension represents the minimum of involvement on the part of the reader. It is the simple understanding of the words and ideas of author. The author’s massage is received but not examined, evaluated, or utilized in any way.
  2. Interpretive comprehension. At this level the reader not only knows what the author said but goes beyond that simple knowledge. it involves an effort to grasp relationship, compare facts with personal experiences, understand sequences .see cause and effect relationship, and generally interpret the massage. It requires a more active participation on the part of the reader.
  3. Applied comprehension. At this level reader does more than merely receiving and interpreting the massage. The reader evaluates the author’s ideas, either accepting or rejecting them or applying then to some new situation.

Generally the emphasis at this level of comprehension is on actively bringing the reader’s general understanding to bear on the ideas and Concepts contained in the reading passage. The synthesis is necessary for higher comprehension, especially on difficult material.[4]

Reading comprehension is viewed as a process subject to the same constraints as human memory and problem solving.[5]  It seems to involve language, motivation, concept development, the whole of experience itself. It seems to be subject to the same constrain as thinking, reasoning and problem solving

Reading comprehension involves taking meaning to a text in order to obtain meaning from text. The ability to comprehend printed or written material, however involves much more than recognizing words, knowing, their appropriate meaning, and reading phrases and sentences. Reading comprehension is a complex process involving many different types of higher level thinking skills.” Compressions frequently mentioned in cognitive and educational psychology, as well as, of course, the pedagogical literature.[6] There is often an assumption in the literature that is the goal of the reading process. A focus on comprehension is in line with our feeling that this is what reading to getting information from written texts. And there is no doubt that our monitoring of our own reading comprehension is of major importance. Judgments that we have not understood a text may well leave us unsatisfied, or lead us to re-read it, or perhaps reject it in disgust.

Perhaps the most appropriate generalization for this section is; comprehension is easier if we can read the words accurately and automatically, but reading the words is easier when we can understand the message[7].

   2. The Purpose of Reading

The reader’s purpose plays an important part in determining the kind of reading they do. Different persons may read the same book in different ways, because their purposes vary. The readers establish their purposes by thinking and by asking question about what they plan to read. Comprehension and speed vary according to the reader’s purpose.

It is important to read with purpose. It helps to understand more what is read by people. As we know that the purpose of reading is to get the meaning from the written symbol. One of the most important tasks on the reader is to find out what the writer said.

There are two basic purpose of reading ability.

a. Reading for information. It is reading to study for goal such as to obtain factual information and solve problem.

b. Reading for pleasure. It is reading for enjoyment which may vary in to     follow our favorite’ sport, comics, article, fairy tale and movie program.

    3. The Type of Reading

A good reader uses many different pattern of reading. Each involves the use of variety of skills and attitudes, the pattern used depends upon the type and complexity of the reading material, the purpose for reading, and the reader’s familiarity with the kind of idea expressed.

Reading lesson maybe given in single class or it may be added as supplementary work. Whether it is given as a single lesson or a supplementary work, the material of reading must be graded defending on the level of the language learners; there are different types of reading: choral, silent, intensive, extensive, and supplement reading”[8]

  1. Choral reading

Even though choral reading is relatively uncommon in modern language classes, this type of reading is still important in improving learner’s pronunciation. Working in-groups will make language learners feel confident to pronounce words in this method. This technique is really helpful for language learners who are reluctant and shy to imitate the teacher’ expressions individually.

  1. Silent reading

After language learners learn the words and expression and know how to pronounce them, the actual reading can begin. This can be done through silent reading. Silent reading can be with reading aloud by the teacher. The teacher’s reading is a model in accuracy an expressiveness it is secured by a happy combination of reading aloud reading by learners.  To check whether the learners rest them by giving questions based on the text, by translation or by summarizing the text

  1. Intensive reading

As the term indicated, each vocabulary and structural item is explained and made as part’ of the student’s active language, pronunciation and intonation one stressed and each concept of allusion is clarified[9].Intensive reading where the students are expected to read short passage and understand everything. Reading passage can be used for consolidating structure and vocabulary as a springboard for other classroom activities, to increase pupil’s passive vocabulary and for pleasure.

  1. Extensive reading

Comprehension students are trained to comprehend or to understand the meaning or concept from a passage silently without teacher’s help.Beside it, extensive reading where the students read to understanding every word.

  1. Supplementary reading

Supplementary reading is also done out of class. Language earners are free to choose reading material .reading materials may consist of newspapers, bulletins or magazines in the target language. Supplementary reading should be apart of the term work. Every language learners should be required to read at least one book in the target language. Again the teacher should give score to the work of supplementary reading.

B. Discussion Technique

1. The Definition of   Discussion Technique

‘’Discussion technique or group learning is an instructional strategy which organizes students into small groups so that they can work to gather to maximize their own and each other’s learning.[10].

According to Barker, ‘’Discussion technique is three or more people interacting face to face, with or without an assigned leader in such a way that each person influences, and is influenced by another person in the group”[11]

From several references the writer pointed out ddiscussion technique is design that provides opportunity for Discussion between teacher and students, and students to students. It is strategies that centre a shared conversation discussions and exchange of ideas in class. It gives opportunity for all to sit and listen, as well as talk and think, thus, emphasizing the process of ‘’ coming to know ‘’ as valuable as ‘’ knowing the right answers.

Begin small group discussion by focusing students’ attention on specific language tasks that are represented in the curriculum. Give students structured interview guides that describe learning scenarios and ask students question about what they are due to complete the task. Students can share responses in their groups and discuss why they believe certain techniques are more helpful. Within a group, students may disagree on the usefulness of strategies. This activity can also be done as warm-up at the beginning of class, present students with a single learning scenario that they will have in class and ask them to share and discuss their strategies for copying with the situation.

Discussion technique is structured and focused to make sure that learning is taking place. The teacher chooses the groups to reflect a diversity of viewpoint, abilities, gender and other characteristic. Discussion technique create the classroom community which involves students in a kind of interdependence whereby responsible for different aspect of content and teaching in other members of group. The group work is not complete until its entire member has masters the content. Furthermore, individual learning is reinforced as a result of explaining the content to others.

Another definition come from Kenneth Gangel, she defines” Discussion technique is a motivational technique which encourages a student to think through concept which has been hazy”[12].

Another definition come from Mayflor Markusic ‘’Discussion technique or group learning is an instructional strategy which organizes students into small groups so that they can work to gather to maximize their own and each other’s learning.[13]

2. The Principle of Discussion Technique

Discussion technique more than just putting students into group and asking them to do the task, there are some principles to differentiate between Discussion technique and traditional classroom activity. The basic elements should be applied by the teacher in implementing Discussion technique. The following are the five basic elements of discussion technique.

Johnson and Holubec proposed five essential elements of principles of discussion technique. The five essential elements are as follow; positive interdependence, promotion interaction, individual accountability, social skill, group processing[14].

1. Positive Interdependence

In cooperative learning teacher creates a situation in which student work together in a small group to maximize the learning of all members, sharing their resources, providing mutual support, and celebrating their join success, and to makes students feel need help each other. One learner are linked with others, it’s mean the success of one learner is dependent on the success of other learners. Within every cooperative lesson, positive goal interdependence must be established. Learn the assigned material and make sure that all members of your group learn the assigned material. In order to strengthen positive interdependence by achieve the goal; join reward, divided resources, and complementary roles.

2. Face- to-Face Interaction

Once teachers establish positive interdependence, they need to maximize the opportunity for students to promote each other’s success by helping, assisting, supporting, encouraging, and praising each other’s efforts to learn. Face to face interaction demand the learner in group can face to face each other so they can do the dialogue, not only with teacher but also with other learners. This interaction make possible to the learner can be learning of resource so learning of resource can be more variation. There are cognitive activities and interpersonal dynamics that only occur when student get involved in promoting each other’s learning. These include orally explaining how to solve problems, discussing the nature of the concepts being learned, teaching one’s knowledge to classmates, and connecting present with past learning. Social modeling, social support, and interpersonal rewards all increase as the face to face interaction among group members increase.

3 .Individual and Group Accountability

Individual accountability exists when the performance of each individual student is assessed and the results are given back to the group and the individual. It is important that the group members know who needs more assistance, support, and encouragement in completing the assignment. it is also important that the members know that they cannot” hitchhike” on the work of others. The purpose of cooperative learning group is to make each member a stronger individual in his or her own right. Students learn together so that they can subsequently perform more highly as individuals. To ensure that each member is strengthened, students are held individually accountable to do their share of the work.

4. Interpersonal and Small-Group Skill

Teacher must provide opportunities for group members to know each other, accept and support each other, communicate accurately and resolve differences constructively. Contributing to the success of a cooperative effort requires interpersonal and small group skills. Placing socially unskilled individuals in a group and telling them to cooperate does not guarantee that they will be able to do so effectively. Person must be taught the social skills for high-quality cooperative and be motivated to use them. Leadership, decision making, trust-building, communication and conflict-management skill have to be taught just as purposefully and precisely as academic skills.

5. Group Processing

Teachers must also provide opportunities for the class to assess group progress. Group processing exist when group members discuss how well they are achieving their goals and maintaining effective working relationship. Groups need to describe what member action is helpful and unhelpful and make decisions about what behaviors to continue or change. Students must also be given the time and procedures for analyzing how well their learning groups are functioning and the extent to which students are employing their social skills to help all group members to achieve and to maintain effective working relationships within the group

   3. The Teacher Role in Discussion Technique

The role of teachers in discussion technique is very important because the success of this method depend on the role of the teacher.

There are five roles, first is the teacher as inquirer, second is the teacher as creator, third is the teacher as observer, the fourth is the teacher as facilitator and the teacher as change agent.”

Key elements of discussion technique teacher’s role:

1.The teacher as inquirer

Cooperative learning teachers are continually examining and questioning their belief, values, and assumption. .Examining attitudes and values held about the culturally diverse learner, race, class, and minority language particularly important the context of teaching in a multilingual, multiracial classroom.

2.The teacher as creator

Since  the cooperative classroom is process oriented, teachers increased in effective group work must realized  that the learning environment is highly structured  and well organized, .According Johnson “The teacher’s roles are a creator are creating the social climate, setting goals, planning and structuring the task, establishing the physical arrangement of the classroom, assigning materials and time”[15]

3. The Teacher as Observer

The teacher of cooperative classroom must constantly observe how group work. Observation replaces the traditional role of presenting information. Observation will indicate to the teacher when group’s activities are more or less educative, when group are learning or have become bogged down in unproductive labor. The latter condition emerges in most groups at one time or another, as anyone knows who has participated in the work of committees. At such time, the teacher should intervene and assist group to redirect their energies and procedures and to redefine their goals. Facilitative intervention requires astute assessment of a group’s state, of the interaction among group members, and of the emotional climate of the group, whether it is supportive or not of each member’s work and thinking. Watching and listening to the student are natural activities in every teacher’s day .Such activities can be formal and informal, planed or unplanned

As mentioned above, observation can be formal and informal. one type  of informal methods  is global observation while amore  formal type is typically referred  to as systematic observation .in global observation, the teacher stand back, listening  to the groups  and the teacher  then records observation. The teacher of cooperative classroom must constantly observe how group work.

4. The teacher as facilitator

The role facilitator means that the teacher is prepared to step aside   to give the learner a more meaningful role. Effective facilities are preferred to intervene and to assist in the problem-solving process. They support and encourage the learner’s desire to learn.

5. The teacher as change agent

“The degree of change at the teacher level is strongly related to the extent teachers interact with one other. Demonstrations of the teachers working collaboratively are the best encouragement for cooperation among students “[16]

   4. The Procedure of Discussion Technique

The classroom organization does not deal directly with the reading process or with materials, methods, or approaches to teaching reading comprehension, yet without good classroom organization and classroom management, reading instruction may be totally in effective.

The writer also believe the discussion group applied to Junior  high school students still has to get more direction from the teacher. Hence, the students might have opportunity to arrange the chairs and Tables in order to have communicative class using a discussion technique in the class room after they get instruction from the teacher.

David Nunan points out that “setting in the classroom is important. Setting here refers to the classroom arrangements specifying or implying the task, and it also requires consideration whether the task is to be carried out wholly or partly in the classroom”[17].

Robert A. Slavin, explained that to arrange an effective discussion, the group discussion session will be divided into three parts:[18]

  1. Pre-discussion activities

Pre-reading activities were employed to give information about the techniques, procedures, and steps of discussions and the reading text  to discuss in groups. In this activity, the teacher gives an example of reading text  to discussion in groups and some questions The duration of this activity is 5 minutes.

  1. Whilst discussion activities

In whilst reading activities, the students read and do the small group discussion about tee reading text, answering the questions that was given by the teacher, report their own discussion on the piece of paper that was provided by the teacher, and present the result of their discussion in their own group first and to other groups in panel discussion, while other member of groups may debate, clarify, give opinion, and criticize.

During whilst discussion activities, the teacher should observe the groups discussion to make sure that all members of group participate in their own discussions. The time of group discussion is 15 minutes and panel discussion is 30 minutes.

  1. Post discussion activities

The post discussion activities the teacher collects the works of group discussion, the teacher comments the group discussions and giving the reward (score) to each group and members of group who participate in discussions, the teacher may give some corrections if any, and the teacher may give several oral questions to members of group randomly.

Those activities above can be conducted in several meetings with some different reding text to be discussed in groups. To check the students’ comprehension

About the text that have discussed, the teacher may home work to analyze a text and gives a written test/quiz individually.

 

 

5. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Discussion Technique   

There are some advantages of using Discussion technique

1. Each student has practice it in self-teaching, which is the most valuable of the entire skill teacher can help them learn.

2. Students have can practice  in peer teaching, which requires that they understand the material at deeper level than student typically do when simply asked to produce an exam

3. Increased frequency and variety of second language practice through different types of instructional.

4. Opportunities of students to act as resources for each, thus, assuming a more active role in their learning.

5. Freedom for teachers to master new professional’s skill, particularly those emphasizing communication.

Implementation of Discussion technique in class not only has the advantages but also disadvantages, such as follow:

a. It takes much time to organize the group

b. If one or two obstinate students don’t participate a whole group or two will lose out on a piece of the text.

  1. c.  The lass situation become noisy, so the teacher needs to control the students

d. Teacher cannot monitor all groups at once.

C. Framework of Thinking

This research has two variables. They are using Discussion technique as a free variable, then reading comprehension as a suspended variables and an object in this research.

For facilitate this research, the writer will describe again two variables as explained before.

Reading comprehension can be defined as an active and interactive activity to produce the word mentally and vocally and tries to understand the content of reading text.

Discussion technique is a technique in which students work in group, Discussion technique can be used in a variety of ways for variety goals, but it is primarily used for the acquisition and presentation of a new material, review, or informed debate.

Based on this theory,  the writer  assumes  that reading  lesson is more effective  with discussion technique,because the students who using discussion technique  get more  significant  in improving in reading comprehension.

D. Hypothesis.

Hypothesis is guessing or supposition tentative statment about things we observe in order to understand.

In this paper,the hypothesis consists:

  1. Null  Hypothesis

There is no significant difference on students’reading ability with and without discussion technique.(Ho)

  1. Alternative Hypothesis

There is significant difference on students’ reading ability with and without discussion technique in rading comprehension. (Ha)

In accordance with the basic assumption, the writer will formulated hypothesis as follows

“The students who are taught using Discussion technique can be predicted that they have ability on reading comprehension”

 

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 

A. The Objective of the Research

The purpose of this research is to find the influence of discussion technique on reading ability at the eighth grade students of Madrasah Tsanawiyah Attaqwa Tangerang. The writer hopes that using Discussion technique could be better way for the teacher in teaching reading comprehension.

B. The Time and Place of the Research

The research of this study was held at Madrasah Tsanawiyah Attaqwa Benda Tangerang, which is located at Jalan K.H.Mu’min, Belendung Benda Tangerang Banten 15123, telp. 0215534315. The writer asked permission to the school and began an observation on October 2nd. The she started to do the research there. The research held on October 4th up to October 25th for twice meeting in a week, so its total 6 meetings. After doing the research in the classroom, the writer collected the data from post-test, and then the writer began to analyze them.

C. The Research Methodology

This research is experimental study in which the experimental class and controlled class were conducted by the writer. In this research, the writer taught the students in experimental class by using discussion technique and controlled class by using traditional Method.

The test to both of the class. Test was same in qualities and quantities to keep the reliability of the research. It was given to know how effective of discussion technique toward students’ in reading ability.

D. The Population and Sample

  1. Population

The research population is the students at eighth grade of MTs  Attaqwa Benda Tangerang . Thus, to get the information of the last score .The writer got the data by giving the test in the last meeting. The total population was two classes and consists of 80 students.

  1. Sample

The sample in this research was taken randomly about 60 students from the population of eighth grade students in academic year 2010-2011.The students then were classified into two group .The first one, the sudents of control class who taught by traditional method .And the other one  were the students of experimental class who were taught by discussion technique.Each group consists of 30 students.

E . The Instrument of the Research

The instrument of this research was test of reading test which consisting of 20 questions. They are multiple choices tests. They are divided into three categories: easy (30%), middle (60%), and difficult (10%). Multiple choices consist of 20 items from number 1 to 20. Its scores per item is 5, it means if the students can answer all of question correctly, they will get 100.

From the description of each test form above, we can see that the high score of this test is 100 scores.

  1. F.   The Technique of Data Collecting

In this research, the writer uses the quantitative research approach, so the technique used to get the data which related to the teaching reading by the writer is doing test. The writer doing the test, after six meetings in teaching reading  of two classes by using discussion technique  and another by using traditional strategy . The tests which consist of 20 items are used to measure the students’ capability in reading comprehension skill.

G. The Technique of Analyzing Data

After getting the data, researcher did was computing the data in applying a t-test.

The writer used  t-test for two conected sample is big sample because the sample is 30 students for each class.  The formula is used t-test or t0 in condition with big sample (N>30) is as follows.[19]9

 

Notes  :

Mx              :  mean of variable X

 

My              :  mean of variable Y

 

SEMx _ My  : standard error of difference mean of    Variable X and Y

 

The writer processes and analyzes the data through the following steps:

  1. Investiganti the work sheet of students, giving score and describe score in table

 

  1. Determining mean of variable X with the formula:

 

Mx = X

N

  1. Determining mean of variable Y with the formula:

 

My = Y

N

  1. Determining deviation score variable X with the formula
  1. Determining deviation score variable Y with the formula
  1. Determining standard error variable X with the formula
  1. Determining standard error variable Y with the formula
  1. Determining the differences of mean variable X and mean variable Y with     formula:

After all of data are calculated,the last procedure is determining df (degree of freedom) with formula:

Df or db = (Nx + Ny)-2

Where

M   : The average of student score

SD : standard deviation

SE : Standard errors

X   : Experiment class

Y  : Controlled class

N  : Total of the students

df : Degree of freedom

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER IV

THE RESULT OF THE RESEARCH AND DATA ANALYSIS

 

When the writer did observation in Mts Attaqwa Tangerang. The writer tried to teach English use Think-Pair-Share of discussion technique in experiment class. The writer used Think-Pair-Share method to build communicative class. In this research the writer took the populations in the whole students of the eighth grade are 80 sstudents. For the research, the writer took sample 30 students from class VIII A and VIII B, and total of sample was 60 students.

The procedure of the experiment was as follows:

  1. The students read silently the reading passages for 10 minute. During this step, individuals thought silently about some questions.
  2. Individuals’ pair up and exchange thoughts for 20 minutes.
  3. The pair’s are given 30 minute to share their responses with other pairs, other teams, or entire group.
  4. The students had their post-test.

A. The Data of Teaching Reading by Using Traditional Method. (X. Variable)

1. The Description of Data

In this research the total score of control group for the students’ score by using traditional Method is 1990, and mean of control group is 66.3.

Table. 1 (see appendix 1) show that the highest score result of control group is 90 there is  one student namely number 2 3. The lowest score of control group is 40 there is one namely number 8 the total of control group is 1990. The mean of control group is 66.3

2. The Table of Frequency Distribution Data

Description of Frequency Distribution Data of Teaching Reading by using traditional Method

     The score in Control Group

  1. Calculating Range data with  the formula :

R = H – L

= 90 – 45

= 45

Explanation:

H = Highest score

L = Lowest score

R = Range

  1. Calculating classes (K) with the formula :

K  =  1  +  3,3 log n

= 1 + 3, 3 log 30

= 1 + 3, 3 (1, 48)

= 5, 87

 

  1. Calculating interval classes (I) with the formula  :

I =  R

K

 

= 45

6

 

= 7, 5

 

= 8

 

Table 2

Frequency of score in Control Group

INTERVAL

F

F(%)

45

-

52

5

16.7

53

-

60

3

10.0

61

-

68

9

30.0

69

-

76

8

26.7

77

-

84

4

13.3

85

-

92

1

3.3

30

100

 

Table .2 shows that students who scored 45 – 52 are 5 students with percentages 16.7 %, scored 53-60 are 3 students with percentages 10 %, scored 61-68 are 9 students with percentages 30 %, scored 69-76 are 8 students with percentages 26.7 %, scored 77-84 are 4 students with percentages 13.3 %,  and scored 85-92 are 1 students with percentages 3.3 %.

    

figure 1

Histogram & Polygon of -Test Data in Control Group

B. The Data of Teaching Reading by Using Discussion Technique (Y. Variable)

1. The Description of Data

To find the result of test the writer make the table of the students score to each group .The result of experiment group is tabulated and calculated in the folowing table.

After getting the data, researcher used the achievement test in the process of collecting the data. The writer gave test to the experiment group

Table. 3 show that the highest score result of experimental group is 100 there is one student namely number 7 the lowest score of experiment group is 60 there is one students namely number 17 .The total score of experimental group is 2460. The mean of experimental group is 82

From the table 3 (see appendix 2) shows that the result of experimental group is greater than control group. The total of experimental group is 2460 and the total score of control group is 1990. The mean of experimental group is 82 and mean of control group is 66, 3. The differentiates result of experiment class and control class is 470.

2. The Table of Frequency Distribution Data

    Description of Frequency Distribution Data of Teaching Reading by Using Discussion Technique

     The score in Experimental Group

  1. Calculating Range data with the formula :

R = H  –  L

=  100 – 60

= 40

Explanation:

H = Highest score

L :=Lowest score

R = Range

  1. Calculating classes (K) with the formula :

K  =  1  +  3,3 log n

=  1  + 3,3 log 30

=  1  + 3,3 (1,48)

=  5,87

= 6

  1. Calculating interval classes (I) with the formula  :

I  =  R

K

 

= 40

6

 

= 6, 6

=  7

Table .4

Frequency of score in Experimental Group

INTERVAL

F

F(%)

60

-

66

1

3.3

67

-

73

2

6.7

74

-

80

12

40.0

81

-

87

8

26.7

88

-

94

5

16.7

95

-

101

2

6.7

30

100

 

Table .4 shows that students who scored 60 – 66 is 1 student with percentages 3.3 %, scored 67-73 are 2 students with percentages 6.7 %, scored 74-80 are 12 students with percentages 40 %, scored 81-87 are 8 students with percentages 26.7 %, scored 88-94 are 5 students with percentages 16.7 %,  and scored 95-101 are 2 students with percentages 6.7 %.

 

 

figure 2

The Histogram & Polygon of Post-Test Data in Experimental Group

 

C. The Analysis of Data

To know the result of the test, the writer makes table of students score for each class, both experiment class and control class test

Table 5

The Calculation Of Both Control Class And Experiment Class Test

Stud(N)

X

Y

SDX

SDY

X 2

Y2

1

70

90

3.7

8

13.7

64

2

70

90

3.7

8

13.7

64

3

75

90

8.7

8

75.7

64

4

75

80

8.7

-2

75.7

4

5

85

85

18.7

3

349.6

9

6

60

75

-6.3

-7

39.7

49

7

55

100

-11.3

18

127.6

324

8

40

80

-26.3

-2

691.6

4

.9

85

80

18.7

-2

349.6

4

10

45

85

-21.3

3

453.6

9

11

85

80

18.7

-2

349.6

4

12

85

85

18.7

3

349.6

9

13

65

75

-1.3

-7

1.7

49

14

45

80

-21.3

-2

453.6

4

15

55

70

-11.3

-12

127.6

144

16

45

70

-21.3

-12

453.6

144

17

65

60

-1.3

-22

1.7

484

18

75

95

8.7

13

75.7

169

19

65

80

-1.3

-2

1.7

4

20

65

90

-1.3

8

1.7

64

21

65

75

-1.3

-7

1.7

49

22

65

85

-1.3

3

1.7

9

23

90

85

23.7

3

561.6

9

24

70

75

3.7

-7

13.7

49

25

70

80

3.7

-2

13.7

4

26

65

85

-1.3

3

1.7

9

27

65

85

-1.3

3

1.7

9

28

55

90

-11.3

8

127.6

64

29

70

75

3.7

-7

13.7

49

30

65

85

-1.3

3

1.7

9

∑ X= 1990

∑ Y=2460

47458

1930

 

According to the table 5 it has been calculated the result of ∑ X= 1990 and  ∑ Y=2460 then the writer  tries to find out the mean variable X and variable Y with formula;

Mx = X                                        My = Y

N                                                       N

 

= 1990                                                      =2460

30                                                   30

 

=6.63                                             =8.20

Based on the table 5.It has been known the result of ∑ X 2=78994 and        ∑Y2=1930 the values of deviation standard of varieable  x and variable y are calculated by using this formula

 

=3.97                                                 =8.02

To calculate the determining of standard error mean variable X and Y with the formula;

= 6.63                                                              =  8.20

5,38                                                                  5,38

 

= 1.23                                                              = 1.52

Based on the table 5,it has been known the result of ∑ X 2=78994 and        ∑Y2=1930 the values of deviation standard of varieable  X and variable Y are calculated by using this formula

 

=39.7                                                    =80.2

After the values of standard error mean of variable X and variable Y have been taken, the writer will use them to calculate the difference of mean variable X and variable Y with this formula:

 

=

=

=2.8

The last calculation  of  the resaeacch is detrnmining the value of

t(t observation) with formula :

=82,0-66,3

=15,7

2.8

 

=5.6

The writer finds that the value of degree of freedom (d.f) is as follows

The writer finds that the value of degree of freedom (d.f) is as follows

 

The writer assumes there is a significance difference between the result of the teaching reading using discussion technique and without discussion technique but before that she wants to explain the procedure to the interpretation of to (t observation)

Hypothesis is formal statement about expected relationship between two or more variables which can be tested through an experiment

1 Formulating the null hypothesis (Ho): there is no significance mean difference   between variable X and variable Y

2. Formulating the alternative hypothesis (Ha): there is a significant mean difference between variable X and Y.

For further information. The writer followed some assumptions below:

1. If the result of calculation to (t observation) is higher than tt (t table)’ to > tt, null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected.

2. If the result of calculation of to (t observation) is lower than tt (t table), to < tt ,the alternative hypothesis (Ha) is accepted

D.The Research Result

Based on the data collected from the test gained from the experimental class taught by using discussion technique and control class taught by using traditional Method showed the mean scores of test in experimental class were 8.20, while the mean scores of test in control class were 6.63 and  (t observation) is 5.6.

The degree of freedom (df) is 58 obtained from (N1 + N2-2) = (30+30-2). In this skripsi the writer uses the degree of significance of 5% and 1%. In the table of significance, the degree significance 5% and 1% the value of the degree of significance is 2, 00 and 2, 65. Comparing the  with each values of the degree of significance, the result is  2, 00 <5.6>2, 65.

Based on the data analysis and discussion above, it means there is an influence of discussion technique on student reading ability. So, the students have responsibility and feel enjoy the learning process. It means that discussion technique can be used as one of the alternative to teach reading.

E.The Research Findings

Along the process of the research and the observation directly to the school that has been object of the research activity, the writer also gets some findings from the students, the teacher, and the institution such as below:

There are some students who have law motivation in the following the kind of activities in the learning English process, it is shown by some of the students don’t have any books used, they are also lazy to learn English, and they are limitation of the knowledge and experience of English.

While from the teacher, there are also found some findings such as : the method used in teaching is too monotoun that is caused boring for the students, beside that the teacher tends that She does not have creativity in teaching English and lack of methods used in the teaching – learning activity in the classroom.

There are also some information from the school it self such as : the limitation of facility needed to teach English in general like : Language Laboratory , a complete library and the other facility that has relative to the high technology to support the teaching English in the classroom.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                CHAPTER V

CONCLUSsION AND SUGGESTIONS

  1. A.     Conclussion

Based on the explanation in the previous chapters, here the writer wants to give some conclussions of the contain of this thesis, it is hoped that the readers will be able to know much about this thesis easly, the conclussion such as below :

  1. Discussion technique exposes students to various points of view and to the ways of supporting those viewpoints; therefore, it helps students to learn the reading content, as well as teaches them how to know new content. Discussion technique also can help the students, with or without teacher presence, actively bring meaning to the written word. The technique chosen not only promotes reading comprehension but also provides opportunities for students to learn to monitor their own learning and thinking.
  2. The teacher is not only as the information giver but also as a facilitator she has to give students guidance and direction how to competence a reading text.
  3. The effect of using discussion technique in teaching reading comprehension has given impact to students. The students are more motivated. It can be concluded that using discussion technique motivated the student’s achievement on reading comprehension test.
  4. Teaching reading comprehension by using discussion technique is effective rather than traditional method. It can be seen from the result of computation. It indicates that the average score of experimental group (m) mean is 82.0. It is higher that control group (m) mean which is 66.3 The experimental has standard deviation ( sd ), which is 8.02 and the standard deviation of control group is 3.97. The data above show that there is significant difference between the experimental and the control group.
  5. Discussion technique is a technique in which students work in group, Discussion technique can be used in a variety of ways for variety goals, but it is primarily used for the acquisition and presentation of a new material, review, or informed debate.
  6. The reading skill becomes very important in education field, students need to be exercised and trained in order to have a good reading skill. Reading is also something crucial and indispensable for the students, because the success of their study defends on the greater of their ability to read.
  7. The teacher is not only as the information giver but also as a facilitator she has to give students guidance and direction how to competence a reading text.
  8. The reading skill becomes very important in education field, students need to be exercised and trained in order to have a good reading skill. Reading is also something crucial and indispensable for the students, because the success of their study defends on the greater of their ability to read.
  9. The English teachers are often faced with problem of students having good decoding skill but inadequate comprehension skill; they need to be able to successfully train students to use good technique, which provide students with the opportunity to reveal their independently-generated copying technique, thus, ensuring internalization of strategies, as well as sharing those techniques with other reader
  10. Based on the data analysis, there is an influence of discussion technique on student reading ability. So, the students have responsibility and feel enjoy the learning process. It means that discussion technique can be used as one of the alternative to teach reading.
  11. B.     Suggestions

Based on those findings above , here the writer wants to try to give the solution of those findings that have been problems in teaching English by giving these following suggestions that are adressed to below:

For the students

  1. The students should be active in Learning English by doing some more exercises both at school and at home .
  2. The students should have some efforts to learn English by reading the kind of English books and practicing it in the daily conversation
  3. The students should be active participants in Learning English by asking some questions of the problems met both at school and out of it.
  4. The students should not be ashamed to practice to speak foreign language  although  in short conversation with their friends
  5. The students should work as much as posible on their own,talking to one another directly  and not through  the medium of the teacher tasks.
  6. The students should have a specific reading time each day to practice their abilty in English reading skill.

For the teacher

  1. The teacher should give some more attention to the students’ progress by giving the guidence as well as possible
  2. The teacher should be a pioner for her students to practice English both in the written or spoken as the daily habits.
  3. The teacher should be a patner for her students in learning process with the high responsible as an English teacher.
  4. The teacher should be creative in making the class alive and interesting
  5. The teacher should be always improve his or her skills and knowledge in exploring the class.
  6. The teacher should be prepared to give the learner a more meaningful role. They support and encourage the learner’s desire to learn.

For the institution

  1. The institution should prepare the kind of books needed both the teacher and the students to support the class activity.
  2. The institution should make the rules that can support the teaching and practicing English in the school area.
  3. The institution should give the chance to make some creations in teaching English by preparing the facility needed in the class activity.
  4. The institution should give the media and also complete the facility in order to make better progress achievement of English, and make teaching-learning more effective.
  5. The institution should take steps which may help  the techers in respect of teaching ,research,co-curicular activities such as games, songs, stories, sources of information and materials, ideas for learning centers, and bulletin boards.
  6. The institution should have a Professional teachers who have knowledge of psychology, educational philosophy, aims, contents, methods and materials of instruction, skill and interest in teaching.

All of those suggestions above are hoped can be practiced by the institution that has been object of this research , Beside that , it is hoped that they will be important and necessary information to get a better result in the future. Further they can be a significant contribution to the development of the institution’s elements to get the best result.

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Barkwr,Laey G Communication Englewood Cliffs Jersey; Prentice Hall Inc

David and Roger Johnson Http; www. Clcc.Com/Pages/Cl Html March 26, 2004

 

Gangel Keneth.Http Bible-Org/Series Page/Teaching Discussio Http./Www/Dynamic Flight.Com/Avcfibook Method.11 Nov. 2003

 

Huebener, Teaching English as a Foreign Language Ilmu Yogyakarta, 2006

 

Jordan. R.R English for Academic Purposes a Guide and Resource Book for Teachers, Cambridge University Press Australia, 1997

 

Kessler Carolyn, Cooperative Language learning; a teacher’s Resource Book, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1992

 

Klingner Jannette, Sharon and Alison Boardman, Teaching Reading Comprehension to Students with Learning Difficulties, Guilford Press, 2007

 

Nunan David, Eggewn, Paul and Kauchack,Donld..Method for Teaching, a skill Approach. Ohio,Merril Publishing Company. 1989

 

Parson P David, Teaching Reading Comprehension, United State of America, 1974

 

Parson. P.David and Johnson, D.Dale .Teaching Reading Comprehension Company,1978

 

Raygor Alton L. PhD, Robin D.Raygor Ph.D. Effective Reading ;Improving Reading Rates  and Comprehension America,1985

 

Sharan Shomo, Hand Book of Cooperative Learning Methods, Prager Publisher, London, 1999

 

Sudijono, Anas, Pengantar statistik Pendidikan, Jakarta: PT. Raja GrafindoPersada, 2005

 

Urquhart A. Hand Weir C.J. Reading in a Second Language: Process, Product and Practice Longman.1998

 

Wainwrigth Gordon, How to Read Faster and Recall More Oxford: handbook, 2007

Appendix 1

TEST OF READING SKILL  

 

Name:

Class:

Read the text carefully below and answer the question that follows

Indonesia is located is a strategic position. That is between two continents, Asia and Australia and between two oceans, the Pacific Ocean or Samudra Indonesia. It also lies under the equator with tropical climate because the season the dry and the seasons.

The dry seasons from May to October. During the season, Indonesia does not have rain the land dry. Farmer grows another crop like cassavas and corns. It is hot during the session. The temperature ranges from 23 Celsius on the land.

The wet season is from November to April. During the seasons, Indonesia has much rain. Usually it rains everyday with high rain fall. The land is wet and muddy. Farmer grows rice. It is during the season. The temperature ranges from 21 to 25 Celsius on the air is humid. And it often happens flood.

                                    ( LKS. Persiapan Menghadapi UNAS Untuk SMP )

      1.   Where is located of Indonesia ?

a.   In the north of equatorial line

b.   In the equator line

c.   In the south of equator line

d.   In the south pole

2.   How many seasons do Indonesia have?

a.   It has two seasons

b.   It has three seasons

c.   It has four seasons

d.   It has many seasons

3.   When do farmers plant their rice field?

a.   In dry seasons

b.   In wet seasons

c.   In autumn seasons

d.   In winter season

4.   When do we usually have wet session?

a.   From S

eptember to October

b.   From November to April

c.   From October to May

d.   From march to November

5.   How is the temperature on wet seasons?

a.   21 – 30

b.   25 – 34

c.   30 – 34

d.   21 – 25

Baturaden is a tourist resort, it is located about 10 km in the north of Purwokerto, Central Java. It lies on the slope of mount Slamet, The largest mount in Java Island. We can enjoy scenic view, fresh air and shower under seven hot spring water of bamboo pipes. The water is believed to be able to cure skin diseases.

                        ( LKS. Persiapan Menghadapi UNAS Untuk SMP )

6.   What is the idea of the paragraph ?

a.   The largest mount in java island

b.   Seven hot spring water bamboo shower

c.   A recreation place in the north of Purwokerto

d.   Magic water which cures skin diseases

7.   We can enjoy these below in Baturaden except ?

a.   Scenic view

b.   Fresh air

c.   Hot spring shower

d.   lake

 

 

The jungles noises begin at night, and they go on at through the night. The jaguars and leopards roar. Then a few moments later, only a chorus of tree frogs and insect remind us that the jungle is really alive. Before dawn, the animals start looking for food and drink. During the day time, the jungle is quiet again.

                                                                        ( soal Unas 2006 )

 

8.   What is describing in the text above ?

a.   Jaguar and Leopards way of life

b.   The kinds of animals in the jungle

c.   How the animal look for food

d.   The typical day of the jungle

9.   “ … and they go on through the night “ ( line l )

a.   The night

b.   The jungle

c.   The jungles noises

d.   The jungle animals

10. What do the animal do before dawn ?

a.   The animal start looking for food

b.   The animal start looking for the drink

c.   The animal start looking for food and drink

d.   The animals aren‘t looking for anything

 

Sport is good for you. It helps us become strong and healthy. It helps us to make friendship with other sportsmen and women. It also helps us becoming more discipline. These things are important in our life.

There are many kinds of sport. If you want to be which other people you can join a team sport such as netball, basketball or football. If you want an individual competition.You can try athletics, tennis or badminton. It isn’t important what sport you play. All sport are good for you.

                                    ( English for communication for SMP.p166 )

 

11. “ Sport is good for you “ how many reasons does the writer give for this ?

a.   One

b.   Two

c.   Three

d.   four

12. “ These things are important in our life”. What things?

a.   Being strong and healthy

b.   Making friends

c.   Being disciplined

d.   All of the above

13. Net ball, basket ball and football are example of …

a.   Individual competition

b.   Team sport

c.   Discipline

d.   Good sport

14. The writer wants you to ….

a.   Play football

b.   Play any sport

c.   Play team sport

d.   Play every sport

 

The length of the country is 6,400 kilometers, stretched from Sabang to Merauke. Indonesia is long country. There are 13.677 Island in the archipelagos. About 6000 of this Island have got a name. People live on 992 of this island.

Indonesia has more than 400 volcanoes. Most of these volcanoes are dead, but between 70 and 80 still active. Every year there are about ten volcano eruptions in Indonesia. The most famous vulcano eruption in the world was Krakatau in 1883

 

                                                (English for communication for SMP P. 167)

 

15 How many Indonesia’ s island has a name ?

a.   About half

b.   More than half

c.   Less than half

d.   All of them

 

16.    Hoe many Indonesia islands do not have a population?

a.   About 6000

b.   992

c.   12685

d.   7677

 

17.    How many volcanoes can still erupt ?

a.   400

b.   Between 70-80

c.   10

d.   1883

 

Mr. Hartono took ten year old son, Dede, to the  zoo. They saw the lion and the tigers. Dede went for ride on elephant. They stopped in front of the monkey house. Dede wanted to feed the monkeys. Mrs. Hartono gave him money to buy some monkeys food.Dede fed the monkeys and soon all the food was gone. The monkeys wanted more food. Suddenly the big monkey put his hand out and took Dede’s hat. Dede was not happy. The monkeys were very happy playing with Deed’s hat. People come from every where to see the monkey wearing Dede’s hat.

                        (English for communication for SMP P.167)

      18.    Dede and his mother went to which zoo ?

a.   Ragunan

b.   Surabaya zoo

c.   Bandung zoo

d.   Don’t know

19.    Choose the true sentences !

a.   Mrs. Hartono went for ride on the elephant

b.   they saw the lion and some tigers.

c.   they stop in the monkey house

d.   Dede brought the monkey food

 

20.    When all food was gone…..

a.   Dede bought, some more food

b.   The monkeys were still hungry

c.   The monkeys were happy

d.   People brought more food

 

Appendix 2

LIST OF ANSWER

 

 

1.   B

2.   A

3.   A

4.   B

5.   D

6.   C

7.   D

8.   D

9.   C

10. C

11. C

12. D

13. B

14. B

15. C

16. D

17. B

18. D

19. B

20. B

 

 

 

 

Appendix 3

DATA OF THE STUDENTS READING TEST

OF CONTROL CLASS 

Table 1

NO

NAME

SCORES

1

Abdul Gopur

70

2

Ade Irma Riani

70

3

Ahmad Kamal

75

4

Aisy Farha

75

5

Darojatul Istiqomah

85

6

Dini Marlina Putri

60

7

Eka Fitri Wulandari

55

8

Fadhil Khoirud Hamid

40

9

Fahrul Azmi

85

10

Fajar Erik Ferdiansyah

45

11

Hulami Haitami

85

12

Mustaqim

85

13

Ahmad Khoiruzzad

65

14

Faizatul Amria

45

15

Fatimatuz Zahra

55

16

Fitriyah Yatmi

45

17

Henita Yusman

65

18

Iqbal Husein

75

19

Muhammad Ridwan

65

20

Ari Permana

65

21

Anwar Hardiansyah

65

22

Chijan Saputra

65

23

Anwar Hardiansyah

90

24

Asep Datullah

70

25

Asep Maulana

70

26

Fitri

65

27

Irma wirdaningsih

65

28

Choirunisa

55

29

Lilis Amelia

70

30

Putri Zelfianti

65

 

Total

X1 = 1990

 

Mean

X    = 66.3

 

 

Appendix 4

DATA OF THE STUDENTS READING TEST

OF EXPERIMENT CLASS

Table 3

 

NO

NAME

SCORES

1

Abdul Hamim

90

2

Dedi Irawan

90

3

Dewi anggraini

90

4

Fahmi Rullah

80

5

M. Subhan

85

6

Nurjaya

75

7

Nurul Hidayatullah

100

8

Panji Hakiki

80

9

Ramadansyah

80

10

Roihatul Jannah

85

11

Evi Nur Fadillah

75

12

Imam Mustaqim

85

13

Imar Saipudin

75

14

Irfan

80

15

Lutfi Hardi

70

16

Siti Hasanah

70

17

Siti Maftuha

60

18

Siti Munziati

95

19

Siti Nur Azqia

80

20

Syarief Hidayatullah

90

21

Dedi Sopiandi

75

22

Hilyah Kamilah

85

23

Manarul Hidayah

85

24

Mugi warasandi

75

25

Wahyu Aditya

80

26

WAhyudin

85

27

Wasfahusyifa

85

28

Yudi Bahtiar

90

29

Yulia ningsih

75

30

Yuyun Wahyun

85

Total

Y= 2460

 

Mean

Y = 82.0

 

Appendix 5

 

The “T” Table of df

 

df or  db

The  “T” Point For Various Significant

5 %

1 %

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

35

40

45

50

60

70

80

90

100

125

150

200

300

400

500

1000

12,71

4,30

3,18

2,78

2,57

2,45

2,36

2,31

2,26

2,23

2,20

2,18

2,16

2,14

2,13

2,12

2,11

2,10

2,09

2,09

2,08

2,07

2,07

2,06

2,06

2,06

2,05

2,05

2,04

2,04

2,03

2,02

2,02

2,01

2,00

2,00

1,99

1,99

1,98

1,98

1,98

1,97

1,97

1,97

1,96

1,96

63,66

9,92

5,84

4,60

4,03

3,71

3,50

3,36

3,25

3,17

3,11

3,06

3,01

2,98

2,95

2,92

2,90

2,88

2,86

2,84

2,83

2,82

2,81

2,80

2,79

2,78

2,77

2,76

2,76

2,75

2,72

2,71

2,69

2,68

2,65

2,65

2,64

2,63

2,63

2,62

2,61

2,60

2,59

2,59

2,59

2,58

 

APPENDIX 6

 

The Data Research  Result Of The X Variable

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX  7

The Calculation  And Validity  Instrument Text Result  Of  X  Variable

To get validity from each number,the researcher used formula

rpbi : rpbi=Mp-Mt

SDt

 

 

Description:

rpbi          =Point Biseral Corelation

Mp          =Mean Of The Corect Answer

Mt          =Mean of the total score

SDt      =Standar Deviation Of Total Score

P          =Testee Proportion

 

Example

If we find out  for validity  of number 1 first  we use  the steps below

Mt = X

N

=    390 

30

=  13

SDt=

 

       =

 

    =

 

=

   

Mt=11,04

 

 

SDt=11,04

 

P=0,27

 

Q=0,3

 

M p=12+14+12+12+12+12+12+12+18+12+14+18+12+16+14+14+…..  = 489

27                                                               27

 

=18,11

rpbi : rpbi=Mp-Mt =

SDt

=     18,11-11,04

2,366

 

=       7,07  =2,995X1,652

2,36

 

=        0,494

 

Interpretation;

Df = N-nr = 30-2 = 28

Df = 5% = 0,361

Df = 1% = 0,463

 

With using the same ways we can use the table below

No

Df = 5% = 0,361  Df = 1% = 0,436             Validity                                         Decision

1

0,494

valid

used

2

0, 362

valid

used

3

0, 362

valid

used

4

0,379

valid

used

5

0, 362

valid

used

6

0,221

Unvalid

drop

7

0, 362

valid

used

8

0,375

valid

used

9

0, 375

valid

used

10

0,222

Unvalid

drop

11

0,392

valid

used

12

0, 392

valid

used

13

0,372

valid

used

14

0,372

valid

used

15

0, 372

valid

used

16

0,372

valid

used

17

0, 372

valid

used

18

0,372

valid

used

19

0,372

valid

used

20

0, 382

valid

used

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX  8

 

The Data Research  Result Of The Y Variable

 

 

APPENDIX  9

The Calculation  And Validity  Instrument Text Result  Of  Y  Variable

To get validity from each number,the researcher used formula

rpbi : rpbi=Mp-Mt

SDt

 

Description:

rpbi          =Point Biseral Corelation

Mp          =Mean Of The Corect Answer

Mt          =mean of the total score

SDt      =Standar Deviation Of Total Score

P          =Testee Proportion

With using the same ways we can use the table below

No

Df = 5% = 0,361  Df = 1% = 0,436

Validity                            Decision

1

0, 362

valid

used

2

0, 372

valid

used

3

0, 372

valid

used

4

0,379

valid

used

5

0, 362

valid

used

6

0,221

Unvalid

drop

7

0, 362

valid

used

8

0,375

valid

used

9

0,171

Unvalid

drop

10

0,225

Unvalid

drop

11

0,392

valid

used

12

0, 392

valid

used

13

0,372

valid

used

14

0,372

valid

used

15

0, 372

valid

used

16

0,121

Unvalid

drop

17

0, 372

valid

used

18

0,372

valid

used

19

0,372

valid

used

20

0, 382

valid

used

 

 

AUTOBIOGRAPHY 

The writer’s name is  Sitti Mahillah. She was born in Tangerang.on september 03 1980.She is the first daugter of her parent.she was finished her elementary  education at Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Al Mujahidin Tangerang 1993.her junior high school at Madrasah Tsanawiyah Attaqwa Tangerang in 1996.in the same year she continued her education at Sekolah Menengah Umum Al- Husna Tangerang.In 2006 to get strata one degree She joining undergrduate program of English Departement ,STKIP Kusuma Negara Jakarta to get strata one degree.

 

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


[1] Gordon Wainwrigth, How to Read Faster and Recall More (Oxford: handbook,2007).P.37

 [2]Jannette  Klingner, Sharon Vaughhn and Alinson Boardman, Teaching Reading Comprehension to Students with Learning Difficulties, (Guilford Press,2007).p.2

 [3]R.R Jordan.English For Academic purposes A guide  and resource Book for Teachers, (Cambridge University Press  Australia,1997).p.147

[4]Alton L.Raygor. PhD, Robin D.Raygor Ph.D. Effective Reading ;Improving Reading Rates and Comprehension,(America,1985) p.22

 [5] Parson. P.David and Johnson, D.Dale .Teaching Reading  Comprehension (Company,1978) p.8

 [6] Urquhart A. Hand Weir C.J. Reading in a Second Language: Process, Product and Practice (Longman.1998)p.85

 [7] Parson P David, Teaching Reading Comprehension, (United State of America,1974)p.15

[8] Huebener, Teaching English  as  a Foreign Language,(Graham  Ilmu  Yogyakarta ,2006)p.67

 [9] Ibid p.67

 [10] Retrieved on   http ./www/dynamic flight method, page last update on  November   11 – 2003

 [11]Barker, larryl..G..Communication.Englewood Cliffs Jersey; (Prentice Hall, Inc. 1987.) p.168

 [12] Kenneth Gangel. http bible-org/series page/teaching discussion nov  11 -2003

 [13] Retrieved on   http./www/dynamic flight. Classroom Instruction on April 5. 2010

[14] Shlomo  Sharon, Hand Book Of cooperative Learning Methods,(London: Prager Publisher ,1999)p.58-.59

[15] Carolyn Kessler. Cooperative Language Learning (New Jersey:Prantice-Hall,Inc,1992) p.155

[16] Carolyn Kessler. Cooperative Language Learning (New Jersey:Prantice-Hall,Inc,1992) p.164-171

 

[17] David Nunan , Paul and K,Donld..Method for Teaching, A skill Approach. (Ohio,Merril Company. 1989) p.91

[18] Robert A. Slavin 1995. Cooperative Learning: Theory, Research and Practice.( Second Edition. Needham Heights: Allyn and Bacon. 1995 ) p. 53

 

[19]9Prof . Drs Anas sudijono , Pengantar Statistik Pendidikan .(Jakarta,PT Raja Grafindo Persada 2003), p.324-325

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